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# Pressure-Compensated Flow Control Valve

Hydraulic pressure compensating valve

## Library

Flow Control Valves

## Description

The Pressure-Compensated Flow Control Valve block represents a pressure-compensated flow control valve as a data-sheet-based model. The valve is based on a Pressure Compensator block installed upstream from a Variable Orifice block, as shown in the following illustration.

Depending on data listed in the manufacturer's catalogs or data sheets for your particular valve, you can choose one of the following model parameterization options:

• By maximum area and opening — Use this option if the data sheet provides only the orifice maximum area and the control member maximum stroke.

• By area vs. opening table — Use this option if the catalog or data sheet provides a table of the orifice passage area based on the control member displacement A=A(h).

In the first case, the passage area is assumed to be linearly dependent on the control member displacement, that is, the orifice is assumed to be closed at the initial position of the control member (zero displacement), and the maximum opening takes place at the maximum displacement. In the second case, the passage area is determined by one-dimensional interpolation from the table A=A(h). In both cases, a small leakage area is assumed to exist even after the orifice is completely closed. Physically, it represents a possible clearance in the closed valve, but the main purpose of the parameter is to maintain numerical integrity of the circuit by preventing a portion of the system from getting isolated after the valve is completely closed. An isolated or "hanging" part of the system could affect computational efficiency and even cause failure of computation.

The block positive direction is from port A to port B. This means that the flow rate is positive if it flows from A to B, and the pressure differential is determined as . Positive signal at port C opens the valve.

## Assumptions and Limitations

Fluid inertia is not taken into account.

## Dialog Box and Parameters

Model parameterization

Select one of the following methods for specifying the orifice:

• By maximum area and opening — Provide values for the maximum orifice area and the maximum orifice opening. The passage area is linearly dependent on the control member displacement, that is, the orifice is closed at the initial position of the control member (zero displacement), and the maximum opening takes place at the maximum displacement. This is the default method.

• By area vs. opening table — Provide tabulated data of orifice openings and corresponding orifice areas. The passage area is determined by one-dimensional table lookup. You have a choice of three interpolation methods and two extrapolation methods.

Orifice maximum area

Specify the area of a fully opened orifice. The parameter value must be greater than zero. The default value is 5e-5 m^2. This parameter is used if Model parameterization is set to By maximum area and opening.

Orifice maximum opening

Specify the maximum displacement of the control member. The parameter value must be greater than zero. The default value is 5e-4 m. This parameter is used if Model parameterization is set to By maximum area and opening.

Tabulated orifice openings

Specify the vector of input values for orifice openings as a one-dimensional array. The input values vector must be strictly increasing. The values can be nonuniformly spaced. The minimum number of values depends on the interpolation method: you must provide at least two values for linear interpolation, at least three values for cubic or spline interpolation. The default values, in meters, are [-2e-3,0,5e-3,15e-3]. This parameter is used if Model parameterization is set to By area vs. opening table. Tabulated orifice openings values will be used together with Tabulated orifice area values for one-dimensional table lookup.

Tabulated orifice area

Specify the vector of orifice areas as a one-dimensional array. The vector must be of the same size as the orifice openings vector. All the values must be positive. The default values, in m^2, are [1e-12,4e-12,1.e-5,1.02e-5]. This parameter is used if Model parameterization is set to By area vs. opening table.

Interpolation method

This parameter is used if Model parameterization is set to By area vs. opening table. Select one of the following interpolation methods for approximating the output value when the input value is between two consecutive grid points:

• Linear — Uses a linear interpolation function.

• Cubic — Uses the Piecewise Cubic Hermite Interpolation Polinomial (PCHIP).

• Spline — Uses the cubic spline interpolation algorithm.

For more information on interpolation algorithms, see the PS Lookup Table (1D) block reference page.

Extrapolation method

This parameter is used if Model parameterization is set to By area vs. opening table. Select one of the following extrapolation methods for determining the output value when the input value is outside the range specified in the argument list:

• From last 2 points — Extrapolates using the linear method (regardless of the interpolation method specified), based on the last two output values at the appropriate end of the range. That is, the block uses the first and second specified output values if the input value is below the specified range, and the two last specified output values if the input value is above the specified range.

• From last point — Uses the last specified output value at the appropriate end of the range. That is, the block uses the last specified output value for all input values greater than the last specified input argument, and the first specified output value for all input values less than the first specified input argument.

For more information on extrapolation algorithms, see the PS Lookup Table (1D) block reference page.

Pressure differential across the orifice

Pressure difference that must be maintained across the element by the pressure compensator. The default value is 6e5 Pa.

Pressure reducing valve regulation range

Pressure increase over the preset level needed to fully close the valve. Must be less than 0.2 of the Pressure differential across the orifice parameter value. The default value is 5e4 Pa.

Flow discharge coefficient

Semi-empirical parameter for orifice capacity characterization. Its value depends on the geometrical properties of the orifice, and usually is provided in textbooks or manufacturer data sheets. The default value is 0.7.

Initial opening

Orifice initial opening. The parameter can be positive (underlapped orifice), negative (overlapped orifice), or equal to zero for zero lap configuration. The value of initial opening does not depend on the orifice orientation. The default value is 0.

Critical Reynolds number

The maximum Reynolds number for laminar flow. The transition from laminar to turbulent regime is supposed to take place when the Reynolds number reaches this value. The value of the parameter depends on orifice geometrical profile, and the recommendations on the parameter value can be found in hydraulic textbooks. The default value is 12.

Leakage area

The total area of possible leaks in the completely closed valve. The main purpose of the parameter is to maintain numerical integrity of the circuit by preventing a portion of the system from getting isolated after the valve is completely closed. An isolated or "hanging" part of the system could affect computational efficiency and even cause simulation to fail. Therefore, MathWorks recommends that you do not set this parameter to 0. The default value is 1e-12 m^2.

## Global Parameters

Parameters determined by the type of working fluid:

• Fluid density

• Fluid kinematic viscosity

Use the Hydraulic Fluid block or the Custom Hydraulic Fluid block to specify the fluid properties.

## Ports

The block has the following ports:

A

Hydraulic conserving port associated with the valve inlet.

B

Hydraulic conserving port associated with the valve outlet.

C

Physical signal control port.